SOJA, Edward - Thirdspace - - Cap1e2 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Ed Soja Thirdspace - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. by Edward W. Soja. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, Thirdspace: journeys to Los Angeles and other real-and-imagined places.
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PDF | On Oct 1, , Richard Bedford and others published Thirdspace. Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places By Edward W. Soja. be subject to copyright. Download full-text PDF. Citations (0). In his previous book Thirdspace (Soja, 1. Soja insists in his definition of spatial justice, “the specific pairing of spatial + justice as something more than just the. Soja, inorder to make that comprehensive evaluation and to result understanding of todays' cities, propose to create new concepts. One of them is thirdspace.
This line is directly responsible for his being accused of fetishizing space, but it will be put to good use in Postmetropolis in a very convincing articulation between theoretical and empirical arguments, particularly in his first reflections on spatial justice. Soja took this opportunity to plead once again for the regional dimension, underlining the unprecedented phenomena caused by this change of scale of the urban environment, but also how this new scale of lived spaces directly affects the search for a fair form of decision-making, which he understands as an issue of regional democracy Soja, According to him, this method of analysis must also help open up creative thirdspaces for action.
To put it shortly: Soja does not embrace the absolute pessimism of Mike Davis in his pioneering analyses of the transformations of the L. The shaping and reshaping of urban spaces is a product of complex power-geometries, as different actors seek to determine who and what the city is for.
Among the resources mobilized in these power struggles are capital, property rights, planning codes, spatial design, law, various policing techniques and technologies, education, socialization, and labour. Of course, the capacity to mobilize these resources is not limited to one group. For if only one of these many struggles had to be retained, the one of social utility would perhaps be the most appropriate even if Soja himself, and this is a strong limitation often underlined about his work, was an armchair geographer and was not personally engaged in a translation of his work into action.
Parts 1 and 2: 4 urban revolutions and 6 speeches on the postmetropolis This eclecticism is reflected in the very structure of Postmetropolis, which begins in the form of a large historical-theoretical fresco. Soja then turns to Sumerian civilization as representative of the Second Urban Revolution, distinct from the first by the scale of its spatial organization and the transformations of power over entire territories that this change of scale implies.
In fact, Soja was not always kind to geographers, who according to him tend to underestimate the value of their own approaches.
He links this with the famous inferiority complex fostered by the domination of the historical in the analysis of social facts His external position in many transdisciplinary debates has certainly contributed to his formalization of the centrality of space in social construction. These very erudite developments prepare the speculative exposition of a possible Fourth Urban Revolution based on the example of Los Angeles, taken as representative of a crisis directly generated by the restructuring that followed the s.
In this sense, the L. The second part of Postmetropolis therefore articulates all the interpretative schemes8 produced on this transformation of the nature of urban production, as seen from Los Angeles. Soja attempts his global theorization by combining six discourses that all relate to very different theoretical, empirical and methodological approaches. The second discourse, Cosmopolis, questions the globalization of the metropolis and its different meanings, and is in particular an opportunity for a great exploration of all the understandings of globalization, in relation to the dynamics of capital and labour.
The third discourse, Exopolis, addresses suburbanization as characteristic of the restructuring of the urban form from its peripheries, far from the classic patterns of metropolitan centrality.
The fourth discourse, Fractal City, addresses the issues of intra-urban inequalities as well as cultural and ethnic diversity. Finally, the sixth discourse, Simcities, reinterprets the work of European semiologists and theorists of hyper-reality such as Jean Baudrillard and Umberto Eco in order to unpack the urban landscapes of hyper-reality where simulacrum has finally replaced its original.
On this occasion, Soja repeats his previously published analyses of Orange County, but in a much more convincing way. This extremely complete and detailed synthesis functions in fact as a prelude to the third part, which returns to the crystallization in of the inconsistencies and the explosion of this particular urban system: the post-crisis restructuring of Los Angeles, which followed other urban crises, that of Watts in and then that of the Fordist production regime, directly produced 8.
Overtime, Los Angeles has transformed itself towards more globalization, more transformation of its economic base, more flexible and cheap labour from all over the world, etc. Part 3: Los Angeles , a look back at a historical moment and an opening to justice Most certainly, this final part of Postmetropolis entitled Lived Space.
Rethinking in Los Angeles may have seemed most surprising to French readers more accustomed to a certain standard of what scientific writing should be.
These events caused the deaths of more than 60 people, the destruction of nearly 4, buildings in a vast area from Koreatown to Compton, and more than 11, arrests. Directly inspired by the readings in radical cultural studies previously mobilized in Thirdspace, this third section is more an invocation than a classical and ordered search for causes, effects and consequences.
Indeed, the polyphonic effect produced is particularly strong, and ultimately reflects quite well the confusion of interpretation that accompanied the events at the time. The polyphony proposed by Soja aims to contradict this hyper-reality, or at the very least to bring some nuance to it. Reworlds the city. Exopolis: The city that no longer conveys the traditional qualities of cityness.
No cityness about Los Angeles. Growth of the outer city and city edges. More urban life. Metropolarities: Increasing social inequalities, widening income gaps, new kinds of social polarization and satisfaction that fit uncomfortably within traditional dualisms based on class or race, as well as conventional.
New underclass debate. Carcereal Archipelagos: A fortified city with bulging prisons. The City of Quartz. More surveillance. Illustrations are identified in the text only by page number. Background photos adapted from Illustrations 1, 3, and 10; icon of swirling complementary colors represents the Trialectics of Illustrations 2a and 2b.
But I must express my deepest appreciation for the work of every author whose words I have borrowed to make Thirdspace as polyvocal as I know how. Many of the chapters have drawn on my previously published work.
Sections of chapters 3 and 4 originally appeared in Keith and Pile eds , Place and the Politics of Jdentity [Zoutledge, in an essay 1 co-authored with Barbara Hooper; parts of chapters 5 and 7 are taken from "Heterotopologies" in Strategies: A Journal of Theory, Culture, and Politics ; the first half of chapter 6 draws heavily from "Postmodern Geographies and the Critique of Historicism" in Jones, Natter, and Schatzki eds , Postmodern Contentions Guildford Press, ; chapter 8 is a much expanded and, I think, improved version of "Inside Exopolis," which first appeared in Michael Sorkin ed.
My thanks to the publishers, editors, and co-authors. M3y greatest appreciation is reserved for the graduate students 1 have worked with over the past 23 years in what, seen in retrospect because it no longer exists in its erstwhile form, was one of the most intellectually stimulating and innovative interdisciplinary communities of spatial scholars ever to exist at an American university, the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning at UCLA.
A professional schools restructuring designed, like corporate restructurings, for leaner and meaner administration and reduced payrolls has moved Architecture to the School of the Arts, and Urban Planning to a new School of Public Policy and Social Research. As I write, the new structure is awkwardly sorting itself out, but fortunately the flow of outstanding students continues, adding to the long list of students who have taught me and to whom 1 dedicate this book.
Every university professor not just biding time dreams of that reciprocal moment when teaching turns to being taught. I have been fortunate to have more than my share of such moments, and they have invigorated Thirdspace more than 1 can say. The list begins with Costis Hadjimichalis and Dina Vaiou, who expanded my knowledge of the writings of Henri Lefebvre in the mids; and with Margaret FitzSimmons, who has moved with nurturing agility from student to colleague to lifelong friend and intellectual confdant.
Dina and Costis also introduced me to Antonis Ricos, then a doctoral student in Critical Studies in the UCLA department of theater, fim, and television, and today one of Los Angeles's leading photographers and computer artists. Antonis's creative eve and our warm friendship are responsible for ali the visual material that appears in this book. Ali have helped me to think differently about space and place, the city and the region.
And now there is the current flow of students, so manv of whom Nave helped me significantly in writing this book. As mv research assistant, Olivier Kramsch at present in Barcelona doing field work for bis dissertation strengthened my understanding of Homi Bhabha, Michel de Certeau, and current debates on regionalism.
Mary Pat Brady currently completing her dissertation in the English Department at UCLA made me aware of the creative spatial turn taken in the recent Chicana and Chicano literature and effectively enhanced my appreciation for the work of radical women of color. Dora Epstein keeps challenging me with her sensitive writings on the lesbian experience of space and place, and her prose, photos, and insights on the new federal complex in downtown Los Angeles xii Acknowledgements significantly improve chapter 7.
My thanks also to Gail Sansbury for her useful essays and comments. And then, there is Barbara Hooper. An older student and experienced writer who returned to the university after almost two decades of "other" work, Barbara almost instantaneously began by teaching me far more than I was able to teach her. Barbara is the only person who has read and creatively critiqued a complete draft of Thirdspace, after responding to earlier drafts as well.
She has softened what she calls my rottweiler growls, steadfastly insisted on keeping Thirdspace open to co ns tant and unruly reinterpretation, fed me i nf ormative quotes and ideas, and helped more than any other to make this b ook better than I could have made it alone.
Finally, there are those that deserve tha nks for helping me complete what was beginni ng to feel like a neverending project. A grant from the Getty Foundation for collaborative research with Janet A bu-1,ughod on 'The Arts of Citybuilding: New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles" contributed significantly in pushing me to finish Thirdspace so that I could move on to new adventures.
John Davey at Blackwell was always there, from begin ni ng to end, with his gentle support. And a ls o always there but far from gentle in her pressures to get me out of my smoky garden office-cell, finish the damned book, and do something for a change, was Maureen.
She always gets the last word.
It is to encourage you to think differently about the meanings and significance of space and those related concepts that compose and comprise the inherent spatiality of human life: place, location, locality, landscape, environment, home, city, region, territory, and geography. In encouraging you to think differently, I am not suggesting that you discard your old and familiar ways of thinking about space and spatiality, but rather that you question them in new ways that are aimed at opening up and expanding the scope and critical sensibility of your already established spatial or geographical imaginations.
Mobilizing this objective is a belief that the spatial dimension of our lives has never been of greater practical and political relevance than it is today. Whether we are attempting to deal with the increasing intervention of electronic media in our daily routines; seeking ways to act politically to deal with the growing problems of poverty, racism, sexual discrimination, and environmental degradation; or trying to understand the multiplying geopolitical conflicts around the globe, we are becoming increasingly aware that we are, and always have intrinsically spatial beings, active participants in the social construction of our embracing spatialities.
Perhaps more than ever before, a strategic awareness of this collectively created spatiality and its social consequences has become a vital part of making both theoretical and practical sense of our contemporary lifeworlds at all scales, from the m os t intimate to the most global. At the same time as this relevance is rising, however, there is reason to be concerned that the practical and theoretical understanding Discovering Thirdspace Introdu ct ion of space and spatiality is being muddled and misconstrued either by the baggage of tradition, by older definitions that no longer fit the changing contexts of the contemporary moment, or by faddish buzzwords that substitute apparently current relevance for deeper understanding.
It thus becomes more urgent than ever to keep our contemporary consciousness of spatiality - our critical geographical imagination - creatively open to redefinition and expansion in new directio ns; and to resist an y attempt to narrow or confine its scope.
In keeping with these objectives and premises, I use the concept of Thirdspace most broadl y to highlight what I consider to be the most interesting new ways of thinking about space and social spatiality, and go about in great detail, but also with some attendant caution, to explain why I have chosen to do so. In its broadest se ns e, Thirdspace is a purposefully tentative and flexible term that attempts to capture what is actually a constantly shifting and changing milieu of ideas, events, appearances, and meanings.
If you would like to invent a different term to capture what I am tr y ing to conve y , go ahead and do so.
I only ask that the radical challenge to think differently, to expand your geographical imagination beyond its current limits, is retained and not recast to pour old wine into new barrels, no matter how tasty the vintage has been in the past. To help e ns ure that the magnitude of the challenge being presented is understood, I add a much bolder assertion. In what I am convinced will eventually be considered one of the most important intellectual and political developments of the late 20th century, a growing community of scholars and citizens has, for perhaps the first time, begun to think about the spatiality of human life in much the same way that we have persistently approached life's intrinsic and richly revealing historical and social qualities: its historicality and sociality.
For much too long, spatiality has been relatively peripheral to what are now called the human sciences, especially among those who approach knowledge formation from a more critical, politically committed perspective. Whether in writing the biography of a particular individual or interpreting a momentous event or simply dealing with our everyday lives, the closely associated historical or temporal and social or sociological imaginations have always been at the forefront of making practical and informative sense of the subject at hand.
Every life, every event, every activity we engage in is 4usually unquestionably assumed to have a pertinent and revealing di sthrical and soc ia l dimension. Although there are significant y'exceptions, few would deny that understanding the world is, in the most general sense, a simultaneously historical and social project.
Without reducing the significance of these historical and social qualities or dimming the creative and critical imaginations that have developed around their practical and theoretical understanding, a third existential dimension is now provocatively infusing the traditional coupling of Mstoricality-sociality with new modes of thinking and interpretation. As we approach the fin de siecle, there is a growing awareness of the simultaneity and interwoven complexity of the social, the historical, and the spatial, their inseparability and interdependence.
And this three-sided sensibility of spatiality-historicality ociality is not only bringing about a profound change in the ways we think about space, it is also beginning to lead to major revisions in how we study history and society.
It cuts across all perspectives and modes of thought, and is not confined solely to geographers, architects, urbanists and others for whom spatial thinking is a primary professional preoccupation. There is still another attachment I wish to make before beginning to explore the real and imagined worlds of Thirdspace. As I shall argue repeatedly, the most interesting and insightful new ways of thinking about space and spatiality, and hence the most significant expansions of the spatial or geographical imagination, have been coming from what can be described as a radical postmodernist perspective.
Given the swirling confusion that fills theciffrenTlifefa re both for and against postmodernism, it may help to explain briefly what I mean by radical or critical postmodernism and why, contrary to so many current writings, it does not represent a complete contradiction in terms, a fanciful oxymoron. To clarify the meaning of radical postmodernism requires a much more substantial look at the flurr y of scholarly debates that has come to surround the postmodern critiques of modernism.
Later chapters will return to these debates in greater detail, but for the moment let us begin b y focusing attention on who LI consider to be the most tillex.
This epistemological critique has ranged from a formidable attack on the foundations of modern science; to a deep questioning of the established disciplinary canons of the separate social sciences, arts, and humanities; and further, to a reformulation of the basic owledge structure of scientific socialism or Marxism as well as other fields of radical theory and practice, such as feminism and the struggles agai ns t racism and colonialism.
In every one of these targeted arenas, the postmodern epistemological critique of modernism and its tendencies to become locked into " stey narratives" and "toqIiing discourse that limit the Discovering Thirdspace Introduction scope of knowledge formation, has created deep divisions.
For some, the power of the critique has b ee n so profo un d that modernism is abandoned entirely and new, explicitly postmodern ways of thi nk -ingtakesplcm neofthcmpraywld:Fo others, the pos tm odern challenge is either ignor ed or creatively reconsti tuted to reaffirm more traditional modes of still avowedly modernist thought and practice. As I shall argue t hr oughout Thirdspace, these are not the o nl y choices available.
Unfortunately, such categorically postmodernist and modernist respon ses have dominated and pola riz ed the current literature, leaving little room for alternative views. The opposing camps are increasingly clearly drawn. On one side are those self-proclaimed postmodernists who interpret the epistemological critique as a lice ns e to destroy all vestiges of modernism.
They become, as I once called them, the smiling morticians who celebrate the death or, more figuratively, the "end or practically everything associated with the modern movements of the twentieth century: of the subject and the author, of comm unism and liberalism, of ideology and history, of the entire enlightenment project of progressive social change.
In essence, postmodernism is reduced here to anti-modernism, to a strategy of annihilation that derives from modernism's demonstrated epistemolo gi cal weaknesses and its presumed failures to deal with the pressing problems of the contemporary world.
Intentionally or not, this focused form of f exible and u nselective anti-modernism has entered contemporary i nl politics all over the world primarily to support and sustain both pr emodern fundamentalisms and reactionary and hyperco ns ervative forms of postmodern political practice that today t hreaten to destroy the most progressive accomplishments of the 20th century.
At the other extreme is a growing cadre of adamant anti-postrnodenlists. Usually marching under the banner of preserving the progressive projects of liberal and radical modernism, these critics see in postmodernism and postmodern politics only a polar opposition to their progressive intentions.
Just as reductionist as the antimodernists, they deflect the power of the epistemological c ri tique of modernism by assoc ia ting it exclusively with n ihi lism, with neoconservative empowerment, or with a vacuous anything-goes "new age" philosophy. In this simplistic caricaturing, there is no possibility for a radical postmodernism to exist unless it is self-deluding, really modernism in oxymoronic disguise.